- 2023;26;E191-E201A Modified Unilateral Extrapedicular Approach Applied to Percutaneous Kyphoplasty to Treat Lumbar Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture: A Retrospective Analysis
Di Zhu, MD, Jun-Nan Hu, MB, Lei Wang, MB, Wei Cui, MD, Ji-Chao Zhu, MD, Song Ma, MD, Bao-Peng Tian, MD, and Bao-Ge Liu, MD, PhD.
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many extrapedicular puncture methods have been applied to percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). However, these techniques were generally complex and had the risk of some puncture-related complications, which greatly limited the wide applications in PKP. Finding a safer and more feasible extrapedicular puncture method was rather important.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the treatment effect of modified unilateral extrapedicular PKP in patients with lumbar OVCFs clinically and radiologically.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, an affiliated hospital of a medical university.
METHODS: Patients who were treated by modified unilateral extrapedicular PKP in our institution, from January 2020 to March 2021, were retrospectively enrolled. The degree of pain relief and functional recovery were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. Radiologic results were assessed including anterior vertebral height (AVH) and kyphotic angle. In addition, volumetric analysis was performed to evaluate bone cement distribution. And the intraoperative data and complications were also recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 48 patients with lumbar OVCFs were successfully treated by modified unilateral extrapedicular PKP. All patients experienced a significant decrease in VAS and ODI scores after surgery (P < 0.01) and maintained the statistical significance until the last follow-up (P < 0.01), as well as significant AVH restoration (P < 0.01) and kyphotic angle correction (P < 0.01) compared with preoperative corresponding values. Volumetric analysis showed that all cases of bone cement diffused across the midline of the vertebral body (VB), in which 43 patients (89.6%) presented optimal contralateral distribution with good or excellent bone cement spread. In addition, 8 patients (16.7%) experienced asymptomatic cement leakage, and no other severe complications, such as injuries to segmental lumbar arteries and nerve roots, were found.
LIMITATIONS: A noncontrol study with a small patient population and short follow-up duration.
CONCLUSIONS: Modified unilateral extrapedicular PKP, in which the puncture trajectory was advanced through the bottom of Kambin’s triangle to or across the midline of VB for proper bilateral cement distribution, greatly alleviated back pain and restored the morphology of fractured vertebrae. It seemed to be a safe and effective alternative applied to treat lumbar OVCFs with appropriate patient selection.
KEY WORDS: Lumbar, osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, extrapedicular, percutaneous kyphoplasty