Alan David Kaye, MD, PhD
Managing Editor: Bert Fellows, MA

About Journal

Pain Physician Journal is the official publication of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP). The open access journal is published 6 times a year.

Pain Physician Journal is a peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary, open access journal written by and directed to an audience of interventional pain physicians, clinicians and basic scientists with an interest in interventional pain management and pain medicine.

Pain Physician Journal presents the latest studies, research, and information vital to those in the emerging specialty of interventional pain management – and critical to the people they serve.

Open Access Statement: Pain Physician journal is committed to real and immediate open access for academic work. We operate under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC). All of Pain Physician manuscripts are free to access immediately from the date of publication. There is no charge for any reader to download manuscripts for their own scholarly use. Readers can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles and reviews, or use them for any other lawful non-commercial purpose. Do not share the article/review if you have made changes to its content. Prior permission from the publisher or the author is not required but you must credit the author and link to the original site of publication.


ASIPP Publishing • 81 Lakeview Drive • Paducah, KY • 270-554-9412 • Fax: 270-554-5394 • E-mail: [email protected]

Copyright 2018, entire contents, by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. All rights reserved. No copying or reproducing, in whole or in part, is allowed without written permission. Pain Physician (print: ISSN 1533-3159) (online: ISSN 2150-1159) is a publication of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians that publishes 6 issues a year. As the official publication of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians, Pain Physician serves as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge related to the study and practice of interventional pain management. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians assumes no liability for any material published herein. No editor, author, owner, publisher, or any other entity accepts responsibility for any loss or damage arising from actions or decisions based upon the information included in this publication. The individual medical practitioner is ultimately responsible for the treatment of patients and the interpretation of information published in this journal. Any opinions expressed are solely those of the authors, and any inclusion in this journal of material relating to a specific product, technique, or method does not represent an endorsement of its value or quality, or of any claims made by its manufacturer. Subscriptions to Pain Physician are complimentary to members of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians.