- 2024;27;E255-E262Chronic Low Back Pain and Sleep Disturbance in Adults in the US: The NHANES 2009-2010 Study
Ye Tong, MD, Xiao-Qing Zhang, MD, and Hao-Yuan Zhou, MD.
BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a significant health challenge with a high prevalence rate. Sleep disorders, which are prevalent among adults, have been linked with CLBP. However, the intricate relationship between sleep and pain adds complexity to our understanding of CLBP.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between CLBP and sleep disorders, with a focus on the potential role of sleep disorders as a risk factor for CLBP.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on publicly available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for one cycle (2009-2010).
SETTING: The NHANES employs a complex, multistage probability sampling design to select a nationally representative sample.
METHODS: In this study, we included patients aged 20 to 69 years from the NHANES 2009-2010 cycle. After eliminating cases with missing data, a total of 863 patients remained. Baseline characteristics were analyzed by stratifying patients based on their CLBP status to assess initial inter-group disparities. Due to age imbalances between groups, we employed a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) method, reducing the sample to 508 patients. The association between CLBP and trouble sleeping was investigated following this calibration using a multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Upon categorizing the baseline characteristics of 863 patients based on CLBP, we identified that those within the CLBP group tended to be older and had a greater prevalence of health conditions, including cancer, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Notably, the prevalence of sleep disorders was higher in the CLBP group than in the non-CLBP group (P < 0.001). After implementing an age-based PSM for the 2 groups, 508 patients were selected from the initial 863 patients. After adjusting for various confounders using multivariate logistic regression, our analysis revealed a strong association between sleep disorders and an increased risk of CLBP.
LIMITATIONS: This is a cross-sectional study, and therefore causality cannot be established.
CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the significant association between sleep disorders and an elevated risk of CLBP, highlighting the need for comprehensive management strategies that consider the role of sleep disorders in CLBP.
KEY WORDS: NHANES, chronic low back pain, sleep disturbance