- 2024;27;E245-E254Three-Dimensional Lumbosacral Reconstruction by An Artificial Intelligence-Based Automated MR Image Segmentation for Selecting the Approach of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy
Zhaoyin Zhu, PhD, Enqing Liu, MD, Zhihai Su, PhD, Weijian Chen, PhD, Zheng Liu, PhD, Tao Chen, PhD, Hai Lu, PhD, Jin Zhou, PhD, Qingchu Li, PhD, and Shumao Pang, PhD.
BACKGROUND: Assessing the 3-dimensional (3D) relationship between critical anatomical structures and the surgical channel can help select percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) approaches, especially at the L5/S1 level. However, previous evaluation methods for PELD were mainly assessed using 2-dimensional (2D) medical images, making the understanding of the 3D relationship of lumbosacral structures difficult. Artificial intelligence based on automated magnetic resonance (MR) image segmentation has the benefit of 3D reconstruction of medical images.
OBJECTIVES: We developed and validated an artificial intelligence-based MR image segmentation method for constructing a 3D model of lumbosacral structures for selecting the appropriate approach of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy at the L5/S1 level.
STUDY DESIGN: Three-dimensional reconstruction study using artificial intelligence based on MR image segmentation.
SETTING: Spine and radiology center of a university hospital.
METHODS: Fifty MR data samples were used to develop an artificial intelligence algorithm for automatic segmentation. Manual segmentation and labeling of vertebrae bone (L5 and S1 vertebrae bone), disc, lumbosacral nerve, iliac bone, and skin at the L5/S1 level by 3 experts were used as ground truth. Five-fold cross-validation was performed, and quantitative segmentation metrics were used to evaluate the performance of artificial intelligence based on the MR image segmentation method. The comparison analysis of quantitative measurements between the artificial intelligence-derived 3D (AI-3D) models and the ground truth-derived 3D (GT-3D) models was used to validate the feasibility of 3D lumbosacral structures reconstruction and preoperative assessment of PELD approaches.
RESULTS: Artificial intelligence-based automated MR image segmentation achieved high mean Dice Scores of 0.921, 0.924, 0.885, 0.808, 0.886, and 0.816 for L5 vertebrae bone, S1 vertebrae bone, disc, lumbosacral nerves, iliac bone, and skin, respectively. There were no significant differences between AI-3D and GT-3D models in quantitative measurements. Comparative analysis of quantitative measures showed a high correlation and consistency.
LIMITATIONS: Our method did not involve vessel segmentation in automated MR image segmentation. Our study’s sample size was small, and the findings need to be validated in a prospective study with a large sample size.
CONCLUSION: We developed an artificial intelligence-based automated MR image segmentation method, which effectively segmented lumbosacral structures (e.g., L5 vertebrae bone, S1 vertebrae bone, disc, lumbosacral nerve, iliac bone, and skin) simultaneously on MR images, and could be used to construct a 3D model of lumbosacral structures for choosing an appropriate approach of PELD at the L5/S1 level.
KEY WORDS: 3D lumbosacral reconstruction, artificial intelligence, automated magnetic resonance image segmentation, percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, preoperative assessment