- 2023;26;E143-E153Efficacy and Safety of a 3D-printed Guide Device During Percutaneous Kyphoplasty for the Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures
Hongwei Wang, PhD, Hongwen Gu, MD, Bin Zheng, MD, Yuanhang Zhao, MD, Hong Yuan, BSN, Hailong Yu, PhD, and Liangbi Xiang, PhD.
BACKGROUND: During percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs), repeated fluoroscopic images to adjust the puncture needle and inject the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are critical steps. A method to further reduce the radiation dose would be of great value.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of a 3D-printed guide device (3D-GD) for PKP in the treatment of OVCFs and compare the clinical efficacy and imaging outcomes of traditional bilateral PKP, bilateral PKP with 3D-GD and unilateral PKP with 3D-GD.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: General Hospital of Northern Theater Command of Chinese PLA.
METHODS: From September 2018 through March 2021, 113 patients diagnosed with monosegmental OVCFs underwent PKP. The patients were divided into 3 groups: traditional bilateral PKP (B-PKP group, 54 patients), bilateral PKP with 3D-GD (B-PKP-3D group, 28 patients) and unilateral PKP with 3D-GD (U-PKP-3D group, 31 patients). Their epidemiologic data, surgical indices, and recovery outcomes were collected during the follow-up period.
RESULTS: The operation time was significantly shorter in the B-PKP-3D group (52.5 ± 13.7 minutes) than in the B-PKP group (58.5 ± 9.5 minutes) (P = 0.044, t = 2.082). The operation time was significantly shorter in the U-PKP-3D group (43.6 ± 6.7 minutes) than in the B-PKP-3D group (52.5 ± 13.7 minutes) (P = 0.004, t = 3.109). The number of intraoperative fluoroscopy applications was significantly lower in the B-PKP-3D group (36.8 ± 6.1) than in the B-PKP group (44.8 ± 7.9) (P = 0.000, t = 4.621). The number of intraoperative fluoroscopy times was significantly lower in the U-PKP-3D group (23.2 ± 4.5) than in the B-PKP-3D group (36.8 ± 6.1) (P = 0.000, t = 9.778). The volume of injected PMMA was significantly lower in the U-PKP-3D group (3.7 ± 0.8 mL) than in the B-PKP-3D group (6.7 ± 1.7 mL) (P = 0.000, t = 8.766). The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were significantly decreased one day after surgery in each group. However, there were no differences in postoperative VAS and ODI scores, anterior height or local kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebrae, PMMA leakage, or refracture of the vertebral body.
LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size and short-term follow-up period.
CONCLUSION: This new innovative 3D technique makes PKP safe and effective. The bilateral PKP with 3D-GD technique, even unilateral PKP with 3D-GD, has the advantages of accurate positioning, a short operation time, and reduced intraoperative fluoroscopy times to the patient and surgeon.
KEY WORDS: Percutaneous kyphoplasty, osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, 3D printing, guide device, bilateral, unilateral, operation time, radiation exposure