- 2022;25;E1193-E1200Transforaminal Versus Interlaminar Approach of Full-Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Under Local Anesthesia for L5/S1 Disc Herniation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Randomized Clinical Trial
Zhiheng Chen, MD, Xin Wang, MD, Xiaoyan Cui, RN, BN, Guowang Zhang, MD, Jianguang Xu, MD, and Xiaofeng Lian, MD.
BACKGROUND: Local anesthesia is feasible for both transforaminal and interlaminar approaches in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). However, the optimal approach for PELD has not yet been established at the L5/S1 segment under local anesthesia with 1% lidocaine.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared the transforaminal approach with the interlaminar approach of PELD under local anesthesia for L5/S1 disc herniation (DH).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial.
METHODS: From January 2019 to March 2020, 91 consecutive patients with L5/S1 DH who planned to undergo PELD in our unit were randomized to the transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy (TELD, n = 46) or interlaminar endoscopic lumbar discectomy (IELD, n = 45). Both procedures were performed under local anesthesia with 1% lidocaine. The clinical outcomes were assessed as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, and modified MacNab criteria. Patient satisfaction surveys and surgical complications were also recorded and analyzed.
RESULTS: Compared to the IELD group, the TELD group had a shorter operative time and postoperative bed rest time (P < 0.001) but a longer radiation time (P < 0.001) and lower VAS scores for intraoperative back pain (P < 0.001) and leg pain (P < 0.001). At the postoperative follow-up, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the VAS scores, ODI scores, or modified MacNab criteria. The surveys showed a significantly higher satisfaction rate in the TELD group than in the IELD group (P = 0.014). Six patients in the IELD group (13.3%) needed extra intravenous injections of sufentanil because of intense pain during the procedure. In the IELD group, there were 2 cases of neuropathic pain after surgery.
LIMITATIONS: Due to the study was included in a single spine center with a relatively small population and its relatively short-term follow-up, the study is not generalizable.
CONCLUSIONS: Both TELD and IELD can provide good clinical outcomes for L5/S1 DH under local anesthesia with 1% lidocaine. TELD was superior to IELD in terms of surgical-related experience and complications.
KEY WORDS: Lumbar disc herniation, L5/S1, transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy, interlaminar endoscopic lumbar discectomy, local anesthesia, 1% lidocaine, low concentration, endoscopic spinal surgery, percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, intraoperative pain