Current Issue - January/February 2020 - Vol 23 Issue 1


  1. 2020;23;E1-E6Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Test-Retest Reliability of the Spanish ROWAN Foot Pain Assessment Questionnaire (ROFPAQ-S)
    Cross-Sectional Study
    Emmanuel Navarro-Flores, PhD, Ricardo Becerro-de- Bengoa-Vallejo, PhD, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, PhD, Patricia Palomo-Lopez, PhD, Daniel Lopez-Lopez, PhD, Ruben Sanchez-Gomez, PhD, and Cesar Calvo-Lobo, PhD.

BACKGROUND: The ROWAN Foot Pain Assessment Questionnaire (ROFPAQ) may be considered as a self-reported health questionnaire with 45 items to measure foot health problems such as foot pain. To date, the ROFPAQ has only been validated into an English-language version.

OBJECTIVES: Therefore this study aim was to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and test-retest reliability of the Spanish ROFPAQ version (ROFPAQ-S).

STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

SETTINGS: Podiatry and physiotherapy clinical centers.

METHODS: The recommended forward/backward translation protocol was applied for the procedure of translation and cross-cultural adaptation from United Kingdom to Spain.

RESULTS: An adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was shown for the 3 domains about cognitive (alpha = 0.763-0.792), affective (alpha = 0.751-0.801), and sensory (alpha = 0.741-0.733) subscales, as well as for the total score (alpha= 0.822-0.813). Good test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC [95% confidence interval]) was shown for the total score (ICC = 0.909 [0.850-0.944]), and each domain such as cognitive (ICC = 0.785 [0.648- 0.869]), affective (ICC = 0.995 [0.991-0.997]), and sensory (ICC = 0.662 [0.447-0.794]) subscales. The Spearman correlations (rs) were adequate for the cognitive (rs = 0.81-0.83), affective (rs = 0.73-0.72), and sensory (rs = 0.67-0.63) subscales.

LIMITATIONS: The original ROFPAQ was developed from a podiatry department of the health care national service.

CONCLUSIONS: The ROFPAQ-S was shown as a valid and reliable tool with an acceptable use in the Spanish population.

KEY WORDS: Foot, quality of life, chronic pain, health impact assessment, validation studies