- 2017;20;E1003-E1023Current Impact and Application of Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulations in Clinical Practice
Ya-Han Lee, MS, Daniel L. Brown, PharmD, and Hsiang-Yin Chen, MS, PharmD.
BACKGROUND: Abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) represent one novel strategy for curbing the potential of opioid abuse.
OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare and contrast the characteristics and applications of current abuse-deterrent opioid products in clinical practice.
METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in databases (Pubmed Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Google Scholar) and official reports. Relevant data were screened and organized into: 1) epidemiology of opioid abuse, 2) mitigation strategies for reducing opioid abuse, 3) development of ADFs, and 4) clinical experience with these formulations.
RESULTS: Increasing trends of opioid abuse and misuse have been reported globally. There are 5 types of abuse-deterrent opioid products: physical chemical barrier, combined agonist/antagonist, sequestered aversive agent, prodrug, and novel delivery system. The advantages and disadvantages of the 5 options are discussed in this review. A total of 9 products with abuse-deterrent labels have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The rates of abuse, diversion, and overdose deaths of these new products are also discussed. A framework for collecting in-time data on the efficacy, benefit and risk ratio, and cost-effectiveness of these new products is suggested to facilitate their optimal use.
LIMITATIONS: The present review did not utilize systematic review standards or meta-analytic techniques, given the large heterogeneity of data and outcomes reviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: ADFs provide an option for inhibiting the abuse or misuse of oral opioid products by hindering extraction of the active ingredient, preventing alternative routes of administration, or causing aversion. Their relatively high costs, uncertain insurance policies, and limited data on pharmacoeconomics warrant collaborative monitoring and assessment by government agencies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and data analysis services to define their therapeutic role in the future.
KEY WORDS: Opioid abuse, abuse-deterrent formulations, ADF, post-marketing, FDA guidance, cost impact, abuse liking, physician attitude, generic abuse-deterrent formulation, clinical application