- 2018;21;E257-E264Is Fibromyalgia Risk Higher Among Male and Young Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients? Evidence from a Taiwan Cohort of One Million
Retrospective Cohort Study
Jiunn-Horng Chen, MD, PhD, Hsuan-Ju Chen, MSc, Chia-Hung Kao, MD, Chun-Hung Tseng, MD, and Chon-Haw Tsai, MD, PhD.
BACKGROUND: Prior literatures have shown inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) could increase fibromyalgia (FM) risk. However, studies about gender and age distributions of FM risk among patients with IBD are rare. With large study samples, this study aimed to evaluate the FM risk among IBD patients with different gender and different age.
OBJECTIVE: We aim to estimate the FM risk among male and younger IBD patients with a large patient sample.
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was arranged in this research.
SETTING: The data used in this research were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).
METHODS: From the Taiwan NHIRD, we selected 4,510 patients with IBD and 18,040 randomly gender- and age-matched patients without a history of IBD from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2005 to analyze the development of FM over a 12-year follow-up period (2000–2011). The Cox regression model was used to assess the effects of IBD on the risk of FM by adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorder.
RESULTS: After adjusting suitable covariates, the IBD patients had a greater FM risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59–1.83) than the controls. Male IBD patients had a higher FM risk than female IBD patients did (aHR 2.00, 95% CI 1.79–2.23 and aHR 1.52, 95% CI 1.38–1.67, respectively). The greatest age-specific FM risk occurred in the youngest IBD subgroup (= 39 years old) (aHR 1.92, 95% CI 1.68–2.19).
LIMITATIONS: The information about personal behaviors was unobtainable in the Taiwan NHIRD. Other risk factors for cardiovascular disease that might augment FM cannot be excluded entirely in this study.
CONCLUSION: IBD is disclosed to be correlated with an enhanced risk to develop FM, particularly in male and younger IBD patients. For preventing FM, it is necessary to pay more attention to the management of the IBD patients. Future researches are needed to further confirm the findings in this study.
KEY WORDS: Inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, fibromyalgia, Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database